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Diamond Grinding Wheel Classification And Research Progress

Diamond grinding wheel is the most widely used processing tool in grinding technology. The different diamond grinding wheels according to the binder can be divided into resin binder diamond wheel, ceramic binder diamond wheel and metal binder diamond wheel. Resin binder diamond grinding wheel more use of thermosetting resin, with a low curing temperature, the preparation is relatively simple and other advantages, mainly for sharpening tool gauges, grinding, cylindrical grinding and surface grinding. Metal Bonded Diamond Wheel The combination of abrasive and abrasive particles has strong bonding and toughness and can withstand large loads. It has been applied in the form of complex grinding of fine and hard materials, precision and ultra precision grinding. Ceramic binder diamond wheel with high elastic modulus and low fracture toughness, its bonding strength is higher than the resin binder diamond grinding wheel, since the sharpness is better than the metal binder diamond wheel, is widely used in processing composite films, Carbide, glass, ceramics and other materials. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research work of diamond alloy grinding wheel, ceramic binder diamond wheel and metal binder diamond sand at home and abroad in recent years.

1. Research Status of Resin Bonded Diamond Wheel

Resin binder diamond grinding wheel to resin powder as a bonding material, adding filler material, through hot pressing, hardening and machining process made of a certain shape of the grinding tool. Recently, the domestic use of resin binder diamond grinding wheel binder mainly phenolic resin, epoxy resin and polyimide, etc., but their common problem is poor heat resistance, grinding process of grinding heat will lead to resin Softening, decomposition and adhesion of the abrasive decreased, in the grinding process of diamond abrasive does not play a very good role is easy to fall off a lot, so the durability is poor.

Phenolic resin (PF) is the world's first industrial synthetic resin, resin binder diamond grinding wheel in the application is very common, but the ordinary phenolic resin as a grinding wheel resin binder at 200 ° C below the stable use, if more than 200 ° C, its phenolic hydroxyl and methylene will be oxidized, affecting its heat resistance and oxidation resistance; cured phenolic resin because the aromatic nucleus only methylene and even brittle, so the traditional unmodified Phenolic resin brittle, poor toughness, lack of heat resistance, limiting the application of resin binder diamond grinding wheel. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare high performance phenolic resin.

In recent years, domestic and foreign attaches great importance to the modification of phenolic resin and its composite materials to enhance, toughening, developed a series of excellent heat resistance and flame retardant high mechanical strength of phenolic resin varieties, such as Liu Xiaohong and other synthetic molybdenum Phenolic, the thermal decomposition temperature of 522 ° C, 600 ° C weight loss rate is still 17.5%, made of friction material with high temperature friction coefficient is stable, good heat recovery; Xiong Xuemei and other methods by melt blending The results show that the introduction of polysulfone can improve the heat resistance of phenolic resin, and the composite properties of phenolic resin can be improved by the addition of polysulfone to phenolic resin. The friction properties of the materials are very excellent. Zhou Yuankang and so on in the tung oil modified phenolic resin polymerization process by adding dispersed Si02 nanoparticles, prepared composite modified thermosetting phenolic resin, used in friction materials, the thermal decline Sexual and friction performance has improved significantly.

Research Status of Metal Bonded Diamond Wheel

The strength of the metal binding agent on the diamond abrasive is the key factor that influences the life of the diamond alloy grinding wheel. Therefore, the research on the diamond grinding wheel of metal bonding agent mainly focuses on the following aspects:

(1) Fe-based substitution of Co as a bonding agent for metal-bonded diamond wheels, reducing production costs. Such as Han Juan et al. Investigated the effect of carbon content on the properties of high-iron-based carcass material. When the carbon content was 1%, the density of carcass material reached the minimum value of 7.47g / cm3. When the carbon content was 0.4% The maximum value is 7.65g / cm3. Chen Xia et al. Reduced the erosion of the diamond surface by adding a small amount of Co to the iron-based binder, and the addition of a layer of dense carcass material to the diamond surface resulted in the addition of the carcass material to the diamond close. Dai Qiulian and other research found that the appropriate increase in the content of C, Cu, Ni can improve the mechanical properties of iron-based carcass material, grinding wheel sintering temperature of iron-based carcass material hardness, bending strength has a significant impact, the amount of Zn and Sn Conducive to liquid phase sintering;

(2) to take technological measures to achieve the metal binding agent on the abrasive holding capacity. (TiN2), Cr, rare earth elements and so on. Secondly, the surface of diamond abrasive grains is coated with active metal or alloy coating such as Ti and Cr to improve the holding ability of the binder.

(3) to improve the metal binding agent diamond grinding wheel dressing ability. Japan's T. Tanaka and other attempts to develop a cast iron as the binder of the porous diamond metal wheel, the porous ceramic diamond wheel structure into the metal diamond grinding wheel, in order to obtain a good diamond grinding edge ability and self-sharpening Sex. After that, Japan's H.Tomino and SHTruong et al. Developed a variety of preparation methods such as hot isostatic pressing, sintering, vacuum sintering and so on. Through the comparative study on the preparation process, porosity and various grinding properties, Porous metal binder diamond grinding wheel has a further understanding. Domestic researchers have proposed to change the wear rate of metal binders to match the abrasion rate of diamond abrasives to improve the self-sharpening ability of metal-bonded diamond wheels, but the method is subject to the properties of the material being processed, different diamond grades, and metal The binding agent can control the limited range of formulation ingredients, the application of this process has limitations. Liao Cuijiao, etc. by adding a certain amount of pore-forming agent to the metal binder, to obtain a certain porosity of porous metal binder diamond block samples.

At present, the metal binder diamond grinding wheel is divided into three kinds: electroplated diamond grinding wheel, sintered diamond grinding wheel, single layer brazing diamond grinding wheel. Electroplated diamond grinding wheel can only be used for grinding less load occasions, the use of sintered diamond grinding wheel is more common, and single-layer brazing diamond grinding wheel is currently in the domestic research and development stage.

Electroplated diamond grinding wheel is made by electrochemical grinding wheel. Electroplated diamond grinding wheel with such as electroplating process is simple, less investment, easy manufacturing, no dressing, high efficiency, long life and other advantages. At present, electroplated diamond wheels in the high-precision, high-speed, ultra-high-speed grinding in the undisputed dominant position. Electroplated diamond grinding wheel defects such as: electroplated diamond grinding wheel in the diamond abrasive and metal coating and the matrix is only between the ordinary mechanical embedded mosaic, the joint surface does not form a solid chemical metallurgical combination, so the control force is small. Grinding wheel working surface prone to blockage, poor heat dissipation, grinding temperature is high, easy to burn the surface of the workpiece.

In order to solve the problem that the diamond grinding wheel abrasive force is not enough, the tool is prone to clogging and so on, and in order to give full play to the advantages of super-hard abrasive, abroad in the early 1990s began to high-temperature brazing process, developed a single-layer brazing Diamond wheel. Especially in the high temperature brazing diamond grinding wheel has made some progress. For the single-layer brazing diamond grinding wheel, due to the high temperature brazing provided by the interface of the bonding strength is high; at the same time because the bonding layer thickness is very thin, grinding grain between the chip space is greatly expanded, easy to plug, Blade more, more sharp, grinding temperature greatly reduced, can effectively prevent grinding burns, especially in the efficient grinding can show its unparalleled advantage. Has been used in diamond wire saws, single-layer brazing diamond grinding wheel and a variety of grinding head and sand tray and other tools in the preparation. But at this stage the scale of industrialization of single-layer brazing super-hard abrasive abrasive or less market.

Sintered diamond grinding wheel is superhard abrasive and binder powder mixed by powder metallurgy method of sintering from the formation of multi-layer structure of the sintered body. Sintered diamond grinding wheel with high bonding strength, good shape, high temperature, thermal conductivity and wear resistance, long life, can withstand the advantages of large load. In view of the sintered diamond grinding wheel, some scholars have carried out research on the special processing method to dress the sintered diamond grinding wheel. In recent years, there are electrolytic dressing method, EDM method and compound trimming method.

Research Status of Ceramic Grinding Wheel

Ceramic binder diamond wheel with high elastic modulus and low fracture toughness, the bonding strength is higher than the resin binder diamond grinding wheel, since the sharpness is better than the metal binder diamond wheel. Ceramic binder diamond wheel in recent years widely used in composite films, carbide, glass, ceramics and other materials processing, is the hot research at home and abroad.

Russia and other Eastern European countries have developed a ceramic bonding agent diamond grinding wheel hot forming process, reducing the diamond grinding wheel in the high temperature sintering process oxidation. The advantages of this process is that the sintering temperature is low, the holding time is short, the thermal damage of the diamond is small, and the overall performance of the grinding wheel after sintering is greatly improved. Japan's Hashimoto was prepared by using MgO, K20, B203, Si02, Na20, Al203 as raw materials to prepare ceramic binder, in the inert atmosphere, Xiaocheng temperature of 680 ° C, insulation 4-5 hours to prepare low-temperature ceramic Bonded diamond grinding wheel, the grinding wheel can be used for engineering ceramics and ferrite grinding, such as workers, and grinding performance.

In summary, although in recent years at home and abroad on the resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel, ceramic binder diamond grinding wheel and metal-bonded diamond grinding wheel made some progress, but these three types of grinding wheel are due to the shape and distribution of abrasive Randomness, resulting in grinding when the normal force and tangential force ratio, high grinding ratio, grinding temperature is high, the grinding machine stiffness requirements are high, and the abrasive is only mechanical embedding, embedded in the binder layer , In the grinding process is easy to fall off the abrasive, especially superhard abrasive grinding wheel abrasive utilization rate is not high, resulting in a large number of waste of resources; at the same time in order to ensure the binding layer of abrasive particles effectively embedded, grinding Grain is generally exposed to the height of small, bitter space is small, in the process of easy to produce debris adhesion clogging, the need for regular grinding wheel repair and repair sharp, thus affecting the processing quality and grinding productivity. Therefore, how to improve the process, the ceramic binder, metal binder and the advantages of resin binder to be integrated, the development of new diamond grinding wheel is an urgent need for modern processing industry.