Xinxiang New Zuan Diamond Tools Co.,Ltd
Address: 18# Building, Jingu Oriental Plazza,No.1 Jinsui Road, Xinxiang 453000, China
Tel: +8618003823130

Diamond Saw Blade Widely Used In Stone

Diamond saw blade is a cutting tool, widely used in stone, ceramics and other hard and brittle materials processing. Diamond saw blade is mainly composed of two parts; matrix and the head. The base is the main support part of the bonding head, and the head It is in the process of cutting part of the use of the head will continue to consume in use, and the matrix will not, the reason why the cutting head can play because it contains diamond, diamond as the current hardest Material, which in the head of the friction cut the object to be processed, while the diamond particles are wrapped in metal inside the cutter head.

In the course of the use of metal carcass and diamond consumption together, the general ideal situation is the metal carcass consumption faster than King Kong, so that both to ensure that the sharpness of the head and to ensure that the blade has a longer life.

Diamond saw blade classification

More and more industries in the production process which use diamond saw blade, with the integration of the industry segment, the diamond saw the type of more refined.

1. Manufacturing process classification:

1, sintered diamond saw blade: sub-cold sintering and hot pressing sintering two, pressed from sintering.

2, welding diamond saw blade: sub-high-frequency welding and laser welding two, high-frequency welding through the high-temperature melting medium will be welded together with the matrix, laser welding through the high-temperature laser beam to the edge of the matrix contact with the edge of the formation of metallurgical bonding The

3, electroplated diamond saw blade: is the tip of the powder through the plating method attached to the substrate.

2. Appearance classification:

1, continuous edge saw blade: continuous serrated diamond saw blade, generally produced by sintering method, commonly used bronze binder as the basis of carcass material, cutting water to ensure that the cutting effect, and useful laser cutting the gap will be the type of knife.

2, the blade type saw blade: jagged off, cutting speed, suitable for dry and wet cutting methods.

3, the turbine saw blade: the combination of the advantages of the front 1,2, jagged continuous showing a uniform shape of the corrugated, improve the cutting speed and increase the service life.

Different materials use different types of diamond saw blade, different powder formula for different material properties, the quality of the material products, the results, the pass rate and even the cost and effectiveness of a direct impact.

Factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of diamond saw blades are sawing process parameters and diamond particle size, concentration, binder hardness and so on. According to cut the number of saw blade wire speed, sawing the concentration and feed speed.

First, saw the parameters

(1) saw line speed: In actual work, the linear speed of the diamond saw blade is limited by the conditions of the equipment, the quality of the saw blade and the nature of the sawing stone. From the best saw blade life and sawing efficiency, the speed of the saw blade should be selected according to the nature of the different stone. Sawing granite, the saw line speed can be selected in the range of 25m ~ 35m / s. For the quartz content is high and difficult to cut the granite, saw blade line speed limit is appropriate. In the production of granite brick, the use of diamond saw blade diameter is smaller, line speed can reach 35m / s.

(2) sawing depth: sawing depth is involved in diamond wear, effective sawing, saw blade force and saw the nature of the stone is an important parameter. In general, when the linear speed of the diamond saw blade is high, a small cut depth should be selected. From the current technology, the depth of the sawing diamond can be selected between 1 mm and 10 mm. Usually with large diameter saw blade saw the granite block, the sawing depth can be controlled between 1mm ~ 2mm, at the same time should reduce the feed speed. When the linear speed of the diamond saw blade is large, a large cutting depth should be selected. However, when the sawing performance and tool strength within the scope of permission, should try to take a larger cutting concentration for cutting to improve the cutting efficiency. When required for machined surfaces, small depth cutting should be used.

(3) Feeding speed: Feeding speed is the feed rate of sawing stone. Its size affects the sawing rate, the saw blade force, and the heat dissipation of the sawing area. Its value should be selected according to the nature of the stone being sawed. In general, sawing soft stone, such as marble, may be appropriate to improve the feed speed, if the feed speed is too low, more conducive to improve the sawing rate. Sawing fine grain structure, more homogeneous granite, may be appropriate

Improve the feed speed, if the feed speed is too low, the diamond blade is easy to be polished. However, when cutting the coarse and small grain and soft structure of the granite, should reduce the feed speed, otherwise it will cause the blade vibration led to diamond fragmentation and reduce the cutting rate. Sawing granite feed rate is generally selected in the range of 9m ~ 12m / min.

Second, other factors

(1) Diamond particle size: commonly used diamond particle size in the range of 30/35 ~ 60/80. The harder the rock, it is desirable to use a finer particle size. Because under the same pressure conditions, the more sharp and more sharp diamond, is conducive to cut into the hard rock. In addition, the general large diameter saw blade requires high cutting efficiency, should be selected with a coarse particle size, such as 30 / 40,40 / 50; small diameter saw blade sawing low efficiency, requiring smooth rock cutting section, should Choose a smaller particle size, such as 50 / 60,60 / 80.

(2) tip concentration: the so-called diamond concentration, refers to the diamond in the working layer of the distribution of the density of the carcass (that is, the weight per unit area of the diamond). "Specification" provides that the per cubic centimeter of work in the carcass containing 4.4 carats of diamonds, the concentration of 100%, with 3.3 karats of diamond, the concentration of 75%. The volume concentration represents the volume of the diamond in the agglomerate, and provides that the concentration of the diamond is 100% of the total volume of 1/4. Increasing the diamond concentration is expected to extend the life of the saw blade because increasing the concentration reduces the average cutting force per diamond. But increasing the depth will inevitably increase the cost of the saw blade, and thus there is a most economical concentration, and the concentration increases with the cut rate increases.

(3) the hardness of the head binder: In general, the higher the hardness of the binder, the stronger its anti-wear ability. Therefore, when the sawing of large rock grinding, the hardness of the binder should be high; when the sawing of soft rock, the hardness of the binder should be low; when cutting rough and hard rock, the binder hardness should be moderate The

(4) force effect, temperature effect and wear damage: diamond saw blade in the process of cutting stone, will be centrifugal force, sawing force, sawing heat and other alternating load role.

Due to the effect of force and temperature effects caused by diamond round saw blade wear damage.

Force Effect: During sawing, the saw blade is subjected to axial force and tangential force. Due to the presence of forces in the circumferential and radial directions, the saw blades are wavy in the axial direction and in the radial direction. These two kinds of deformation will cause the rock surface is not straight, stone waste more, sawing noise, vibration intensified, resulting in early damage to the diamond caking, saw blade life reduced.

Temperature effect: the traditional theory that: the impact of temperature on the blade process is mainly reflected in two aspects: First, lead to agglomeration in the diamond graphitization; the second is caused by the diamond and the carcass of the heat force caused by premature loss of diamond particles The New research shows that the heat generated during the cutting process is mainly introduced into the agglomeration. Arc area temperature is not high, generally between 40 ~ 120 ℃. While the abrasive grinding point temperature is higher, generally between 250 ~ 700 ℃. While the coolant only reduces the average temperature of the arc area, the impact of the abrasive grain temperature is small. This temperature does not cause the carbonization of graphite, but it will make abrasive and workpiece friction between the performance changes, and the diamond and additives between the thermal stress, resulting in the diamond failure mechanism of a fundamental bending. Studies have shown that the temperature effect is the biggest factor affecting the breakage of the saw blade.

Grinding damage: due to the effect of force and temperature should be more than a period of time after the use of the blade will often produce grinding damage. Grinding damage in the form of the following are: abrasive wear, local crushing, large area broken, off, bonding agent along the cutting speed of the mechanical scratches. Abrasive wear: diamond particles and pieces of continuous friction, edge passivation into a flat, loss of cutting performance, increase friction. Sawing heat will cause the diamond particles on the surface of the graphitized thin layer, the hardness greatly reduced, exacerbate wear: diamond particles to withstand the alternating thermal stress, but also bear the alternating cutting stress, there will be fatigue cracks and local broken, revealed The sharpness of the new edge, is the ideal wear pattern; large area broken: diamond particles cut in the cut to bear the impact load, the more prominent particles and grains prematurely consumed; off: the cutting force of the diamond The particles are constantly shaking in the binder and are loosened. At the same time, the abrasion and sawing of the binder itself during the sawing process soften the binder. This causes the gripping force of the binder to drop, and when the cutting force on the particles is greater than the holding force, the diamond particles will fall off. Whichever wear is closely related to the load and temperature of the diamond particles. Both of which depend on the cutting process and the cooling lubrication conditions.

Diamond saw blade manufacturing method

With the rapid development of automotive, aerospace and aerospace technology, the requirements for material performance and processing technology are increasing. New materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics, particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PRMMC) and ceramic materials are widely used. These materials have high strength, good wear resistance, thermal expansion coefficient and other characteristics, which determines the machining of them when the tool life is very short. The development of new wear and stability of the super-hard cutting tool is a lot of colleges and universities, research institutes and business research topics. Diamond has the advantages of high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient and low chemical inertness. It is the ideal material for making the tool. This paper gives an overview of the development of diamond tool manufacturing methods in recent years.

1. [1] the scope of application

(1) difficult to process non-ferrous metal materials processing

Processing copper, zinc, aluminum and other non-ferrous metals and their alloys, the material easy to adhere to the tool, processing difficulties. The use of diamond friction coefficient is low, and non-ferrous metal affinity small features, diamond tools can effectively prevent the metal and tool bonding. In addition, due to the large elastic modulus of diamond, cutting edge deformation is small, the cutting of non-ferrous metal extrusion deformation is small, can make the cutting process is completed under small deformation, which can improve the processing surface quality.

(2) difficult to process non-metallic materials processing

When hard fibers, such as glass fiber reinforced plastics, silicon filled materials, hard carbon fiber / epoxy composites, are used to process hard materials that contain a large amount of high hardness. Processing, and diamond tool hardness, wear resistance, and therefore high processing efficiency.

(3) ultra-precision machining

With the advent of modern integrated technology, machining to the direction of high-precision development of the tool performance put forward a very high demand. As the diamond friction coefficient is small, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, can cut very thin chips, chips easily flow out, and other substances have little affinity, easy to produce BUE, heat, On the edge and the impact of the workpiece, so the blade is not easy passivation, cutting deformation is small, you can get a higher quality surface.

2. Method of manufacturing diamond tools

At present, the main processing methods of diamond are as follows: film coating tool, thick film diamond welding tool, diamond sintered body tool and single crystal diamond tool.

2.1 film coating tool

The film coating tool is a tool made by depositing a diamond film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a bulk material with good rigidity and high temperature characteristics.

Since the thermal expansion of the Si3N4-based ceramics, the WC-Co-based cemented carbide, and the metal W is close to that of the diamond, the thermal stress generated during the film formation is small, and therefore, it can be used as the base material of the blade body. In the WC-Co cemented carbide, the presence of the bound phase Co makes it easy to form graphite between the diamond film and the substrate and reduce the adhesion strength. Pretreatment is required before deposition to eliminate the effect of Co (usually by acid etching to Co) The

Chemical vapor deposition method is to use a certain method to activate the gas containing C source, at very low gas pressure, the carbon atoms in a certain area deposition, carbon atoms in the agglomeration, deposition process to form a diamond phase. At present, the CVD method for depositing diamond mainly includes microwave, hot filament, DC arc spraying method and so on.

The advantages of diamond film can be applied to a variety of geometric shapes of complex tools, such as chips with chips, end mills, reamers and drill bits; can be used to cut many non-metallic materials, cutting cutting force is small, Smooth work, slow wear, the workpiece is not easy to deformation, for the workpiece material is good, the tolerance of small finishing. The main drawback is that the diamond film and the substrate of the poor adhesion, diamond film cutter does not have a serious grinding.

2.2 diamond thick film welding tool

Diamond thick film welding tool manufacturing process generally include: the preparation of large area of the diamond film; diamond film cut into the required size of the tool; diamond thick film and tool base material welding; diamond thick film cutting edge grinding and polishing The (1) the preparation and cutting of diamond thick film

Commonly used method for preparing diamond thick film is DC plasma jet CVD method. Diamond is deposited on the WC-Co alloy (surface for mirror processing), in the matrix cooling process, the diamond film automatically fall off. This method is very fast deposition (up to 930μm / h), lattice between the more closely, but the growth surface is relatively rough. Diamond film hardness, wear resistance, non-conductive decision of its cutting method is laser cutting (cutting can be in the air, oxygen and argon environment). The use of laser cutting can not only cut the diamond thick film into the desired shape and size, but also cut out the back angle of the tool, with slit narrow, efficient and so on.

(1) diamond thick film cutter welding

Diamond and the general metal and its alloys have a high interface between the energy, resulting in diamonds can not be infiltrated by the general low melting alloy, poor weldability. It is currently possible to improve the solderability between the diamond and the metal by adding a strong carbide forming element to the copper-silver alloy solder or by metallizing the diamond surface.

① active solder method

The solder is generally soldered with a Ti-containing copper alloy without any flux in an inert gas or vacuum. Commonly used solder composition Ag = 68.8wt%, Cu = 26.7wt%, Ti = 4.5wt%, commonly used preparation method is arc melting method and powder metallurgy method. Ti as the active element in the welding process with C reflects the formation of TiC, can improve the diamond and solder wetting and bonding strength. Heating temperature is generally 850 ℃, heat for 10 minutes, slow to reduce the internal stress.

② surface after the metal welding

The metallization of the diamond surface is through the surface treatment technology in the diamond surface plating metal, so that the surface with metal or metal-like properties. Ti is generally formed on the surface of diamond, Ti and C reaction to generate TiC, TiC and Ag-Cu alloy solder has better wetting and bonding strength. Currently used titanium plating method

There are: vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD, including vacuum evaporation plating, vacuum sputtering plating, vacuum ion plating, etc.), chemical vapor deposition and powder coating sintering. PVD method is low in single plating, the temperature of the diamond during plating is less than 500 ℃, and the coating is physically attached with the diamond and there is no chemical metallurgy. CVD Ti and diamond chemical reaction to form a strong metallurgical combination, the reaction temperature is high, damage to the diamond.

(2) thick film diamond tool grinding

Diamond thick film processing methods are: mechanical grinding, hot metal plate grinding, ion beam, laser beam and plasma etching.